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Since the Cultural anche Creative sector in made of multiple industries, the data sources used are numerous. That is why not all information is updated taking into account the same year or time frame. In either titles or descriptions the year considered is always indicated.


The cultural and creative industries have started drawing the attention of a wide array of stakeholders from the 90s onwards: CCIs are now a growing sector with the ability to foster employment rates and find innovative solutions to the challenges characterizing today’s society

Using the term industries highlights two relevant features: the economic value of this sector and its resourcefulness. In fact, this field has demonstrated great resilience and flexibility, allowing it to remain competitive even during the 2008 crisis. 

A first institutional recognition was granted to this sector in 2010, with the publication of the Green Paper – Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries.
The report is a statement: the European Commissions commits to supporting this domain which can be an instrument to foster territorial development and strengthen the European identity.
This has led to growing investments in culture and creativity both by the public and private sectors, both at a national and international level.

The Emilia-Romagna region represents a tangible example of how CCIs can conquer relevant roles within economic systems, also thanks to policies enabling synergies with other productive activities and research.

Local units and professionals

Defining and quantifying Cultural and Creative Industries has always been a complex task for policy-makers and researchers. Being CCIs a strategic sector for our societies, there have been a wide variety of papers, publications and studies on this matter, carried out by the most renowned international organizations (UNESCO, UNCTAD, European Commission, OECD) 
However, the literature available still presents numerous approaches that could be adopted to define the phenomenon. Indeed, there is not just one single criterion that could be used for CCIs: traditional classifications do not always work due to the very own peculiar characteristics of this sector. After all, creativity is an input that can be found in many human activities.

The following mapping of the sector was built using the main European analytical model: the ESS (European Statistical System) net-culture framework (2011-12).
It takes into consideration different groups: at the heart of it there are cultural activities (performing arts and shows, leisure activities, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage), followed by the media industry (film industry, publishing, radio broadcasting, music). The framework also considers creative services (design, photography, architecture, ICT), artisan businesses and the distribution of cultural products. In 2022 the entire perimeter of CCIs in Emilia-Romagna includes approximately 40 thousand local units and 99 thousand employees, respectively 7.2% and 5.9% of the overall regional production. Creative services (design, photography, advertising, architecture and planning, ICT) employ 56.7 thousand people, followed by artistic and entertainment activities with 17.9 operators, slightly above the media and cultural industries such as cinema and audiovisual, publishing and printing, music and radio-television broadcasts amounting to 15 thousand. The artistic crafts sector counts on 5.7 thousand people while in the distribution of cultural products there are around 3.8 people.

Added value, turnover and household spending

The economic values of cultural and creative activities are proof of the substantial contribution of this sector to the overall economy of the Emilia-Romagna region. In 2022, CCIs generated a turnover of € 13 billion, while the added value amounted to € 5,8 billion, corresponding to 4% of the overall economy in both cases. The most relevant share came from ICT, architecture  and engineering. Household spending for culture amounts to € 3.5 billion.

Covid19 left a mark. A general contraction was observed in all of these indicators in 2020, which started to improve in 2021. In 2022 turnover is higher than before the crisis while the added value and household spending reached the level registered in 2019.

Professionals in the performing arts field

As revealed by the aforementioned analysis, the pandemic took a toll, in particular, on the performing arts sector: venues and theatres were forced to close down, leading to negative impacts on employment. In 2020, the professionals operating in this field in Emilia-Romagna amounted to 8.741 while in 2019 there were 11.829 employees. Those that were hardly hit were namely artists, followed by technicians and the administrative staff. In 2022, the situation registered has improved and has reached again the levels observed before the crisis.

The staff inside museums

There is a heterogeneous pool of people supporting museums in all of their activities through varied competences: employees, staff from external companies, freelance collaborators, volunteers and young people who decide to carry out their civil service in this sector. In Emilia-Romagna, around 70% of museums employ internal staff, while 30% do not, probably relying on volunteering or services from external companies that are involved in their management.

Report – The videogame industry in Emilia-Romagna

22 February 2022
An in-depth analysis on the videogame sector was conducted to learn more about this industry ...read more

Report – Covid19 impact on Cultural and Creative Industries in Emilia-Romagna

22 February 2022
This study anlayses the impact of the pandemic on the cultural and creative industries of the Emilia-Romagna Region.  ...read more

Employment in the performing arts and audiovisual sectors in Emilia-Romagna – 2019

24 November 2019
This study analyzes the dynamics of employment in the entertainment industry in Emilia-Romagna. The information processed were aggregated ...read more